Don't let anyone lie to you: CHRIST IS TRULY RISEN! Happy Eastertide to you all. Remember, Easter is 50 days long. Rejoice each day in the Victory of Christ!
From antiquity, Mary has been called "Theotokos", or "God-Bearer" (Mother of God). The word in Greek is "Theotokos". The term was used as part of the popular piety of the early first millennium Church. It is used throughout the Eastern Church's Liturgy, both Orthodox and Catholic. It lies at the heart of the Latin Rite's deep Marian piety and devotion. This title was a response to early threats to orthodoxy, the preservation of authentic Christian teaching. A pronouncement of an early Church Council, the Council of Ephesus in 431 A.D., insisted "If anyone does not confess that God is truly Emmanuel, and that on this account the Holy Virgin is the "Theotokos" (for according to the flesh she gave birth to the Word of God become flesh by birth) let him be anathema." (The Council of Ephesus, 431 AD)
The Council's insistence on the use of the title reflected an effort to preserve the teaching of the Church that Jesus was both Divine and human, that the two natures were united in His One Person. Not only was that teaching under an assault then, it is under an assault now, and failing to "get it right" has extraordinary implications. The reason that the early Church Council pronounced this doctrine was "Christological", meaning that it had to do with Jesus Christ. One of the threats was from an interpretation of the teachings of a Bishop of Constantinople named Nestorius. Some of his followers insisted on calling Mary only the "Mother of 'the Christ'". The Council insisted on the use of the title (in the Greek) "Theotokos," ("Mother of God" or "God-bearer") to reaffirm the central truth of what occurred in the Incarnation of Jesus Christ.
Rejection of the truth revealed in this beautiful title of Mary has led to a diminution in the understanding and role of Mary, impeding some Christians from grasping a deeper truth concerning the meaning of Mary's life - her Fiat, her "Yes" to God's Will. It is a privation, leading to a reduced understanding of the call to every Christian to live our lives for God as Mary did. It has undermined our mission to bring the world to the new world, recreated in her Son, the Church which is His Body on earth and a seed of the Kingdom which is to come. The Church, of which we are members through baptism, continues His redemptive mission until he returns.
When we fail to receive the gift of Mary as Mother we can also miss the call of every Christian to bear Jesus for the world as she did. It is time to re-examine the deeper implications of the treasure that is found in the life example and message of the little Virgin of Nazareth. This wonderful title, Mary, the Mother of God, "Theotokos", reveals a profound truth not only about Mary, but about each one of us. We are now invited into the very relationship that she had with her Son. We can become "God-bearers" and bring Him to all those whom we encounter in our few short days under the sun.
(Additional commentary by St. Mark)
To deny the Divine Maternity of the Blessed Virgin is the heresy of Nestorianism. Nestorianism divides Christ into two Persons. This heresy was condemned at the Council of Ephesus in 431, and the same Council infallibly defined that Christ is one Person with two Natures (the Hypostatic Union) and since both Natures came through the Holy Virgin, though His Divinity preceded Her, She is truly Mother of God, Jesus Christ. Thus, sadly, when Protestants deny this venerable Title of Our Lady, they are really professing Nestorianism, whether knowingly or unknowingly.
It must also be understood that the title of Mother of God is the first of all titles for the Virgin. Her preeminence in salvation is due to Her being Mother of God, and because She consented with full heart and mind to become that very Tabernacle of the Living Word made flesh. Thus, any honour, privilege or title ascribed to Her is due to this one great title: Mother of God.
Also, by the very fact that She is Mother of God, and Our Lord is called our "Brother" because He stooped down to taken upon Himself our humanity, She thus becomes Mother to all Christ's faithful brethren, which is the Catholic Church, and thus She becomes in very deed our Mother. This Maternity is executed by Providence upon all the Church's children, and She has become the very mantle to which we fly in times of danger.
Without grasping this fundamental dogma concerning Our Blessed Mother, no man can truly understand the mystery of the Christian Religion, and thus cannot be set free by the Truth, which Christ Himself promised. Without understanding this great mystery of Our Lady, one cannot appreciate the immensity of Our Lord's loving condensention to become Son of Man. It is truly a remarkable, nay, sublime thought, that God should take unto Himself a Mother, like common man, and being subject to Her by the very Law He commanded to Moses, He deigned to show us the right observance of the Law, which He fulfilled and brought to perfection with the New Convenant which is faithfully executed by the Holy Catholic Church.
Since a mother gives birth to the entire person, both the flesh and spirit, even though she did not create the spirit since that comes from God, she is truly called "mother", as the Decalogue attests. The entire person, both flesh and spirit, is placed under her guidance and maternal love, and she takes it upon herself to tend to both: by feeding the flesh and caring for it; by teaching the True Religion to the spirit, so that it can have a hope of eternal life in the Kingdom. Thus, even though Our Lady did not create or precede the Divinity of Jesus Christ, nevertheless, She gave birth to the Person of Christ, constituting both the Divine and Human, so that She is truly called Mother of God.
St. Alphonsus Ligouri ~ Sermon 7 ~ Second Sunday after the Epiphany: On the Confidence With Which We Ought To Recommend Ourselves To The Mother Of God
Gospel for the Second Sunday after Epiphany (Latin Mass):
And the third day, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee: and the Mother of Jesus was there. And Jesus also was invited, and His disciples, to the marriage. And the wine failing, the Mother of Jesus saith to him: They have no wine. And Jesus saith to her: Woman, what is that to Me and to thee? My hour is not yet come. His Mother saith to the waiters: Whatsoever He shall say to you, do ye.
Now there were set there six waterpots of stone, according to the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three measures apiece. Jesus saith to them: Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim. And Jesus saith to them: Draw out now, and carry to the chief steward of the feast. And they carried it. And when the chief steward had tasted the water made wine, and knew not whence it was, but the waiters knew who had drawn the water; the chief steward calleth the bridegroom, And saith to him: Every man at first setteth forth good wine, and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse. But thou hast kept the good wine until now.
This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee; and manifested His glory, and His disciples believed in Him.
“And the wine failing, the Mother of Jesus saith to him: They have no wine” JOHN ii. 3.
In the Gospel of this day we read that Jesus Christ, having been invited, went with his holy mother to a marriage of Cana of Galilee. ”The wine failing, Mary said to her divine Son: ”They have no wine.” By these words she intended to ask her Son to console the spouses, who were afflicted because the wine had failed. Jesus answered: “Woman, what is it to me and to thee? my hour is not yet come.” (John ii. 4.) He meant that the time destined for the performance of miracles was that of his preaching through Judea. But, though his answer appeared to be a refusal of the request of Mary, the Son, says St. Chrysostom, resolved to yield to the desire of the mother. ”Although he said, my hour is not yet come, he granted the petition of his mother.” (Hom, in ii. Joan.) Mary said to the waiters: “Whatever he shall say to you, do ye.” Jesus bid them fill the water-pots with water the water was changed into the most excellent wine. Thus the bride groom and the entire family were filled with gladness. From the fact related in this day’s gospel, let us consider, in the first point, the greatness of Mary’s power to obtain from God the graces which we stand in need of; and in the second, the tenderness of Mary’s compassion, and her readiness to assist us all in our wants.
First Point. The greatness of Mary’s power to obtain from God for us all the graces we stand in need of.
1. So great is Mary’s merit in the eyes of God, that, according to St. Bonaventure, her prayers are infallibly heard. “The merit of Mary is so great before God, that her petition cannot be rejected.” (De Virg., c. iii.) But why are the prayers of Mary so powerful in the sight of God? It is, says St. Antonine, because she is his mother. “The petition of the mother of God partakes of the nature of a command, and therefore it is impossible that she should not be heard.” (Par. 4, tit. 13, c. xvii., 4.) The prayers of the saints are the prayers of servants; but the prayers of Mary are the prayers of a mother, and therefore, according to the holy doctor, they are regarded in a certain manner as commands by her Son, who loves her so tenderly. It is then impossible that the prayers of Mary should be rejected.
2. Hence, according to Cosmas of Jerusalem, the intercession of Mary is all-powerful. ”Omnipotens auxilium tuum, Maria” It is right, as Richard of St. Lawrence teaches, that the son should impart his power to the mother. Jesus Christ, who is all-powerful, has made Mary omnipotent, as far as a creature is capable of omnipotence; that is, omnipotent in obtaining from him, her divine Son, whatever she asks. ”Cum autem eadem sit potestas filii et matris ab omnipotente filio, omnipotens mater facta est.” (Lib. 4, de Laud. Virg.)
3. St. Bridget heard our Saviour one day addressing the Virgin in the following words: “Ask from me whatever you wish, for your petition cannot be fruitless.” (Rev. 1. 1, cap. iv.) My mother, ask of me what you please; I cannot reject any prayer which you present to me; “because since you refused me nothing on earth, I will refuse you nothing in Heaven.” (Ibid.) St. George, Archbishop of Nicomedia, says that Jesus Christ hears all the prayers of his mother, as if he wished thereby to discharge the obligation which he owes to her for having given to him his human nature, by consenting to accept him for her Son. ”Filius, exolvens debitum petitiones tuas implet.” (Orat. de Exitu Mar.) Hence, St. Methodius, martyr, used to say to Mary: “Euge, euge, quæ debitorum habeas filium, Deo enim universi debemus, tibi autem ille debitor est.” (Orat, Hyp. Dom.) Rejoice, rejoice, holy virgin; for thou hast for thy debtor that Son to whom we are all debtors; to thee he owes the human nature which he received from thee.
4. St. Gregory of Nicomedia encourages sinners by the assurance that, if they have recourse to the Virgin with a determination to amend their lives, she will save them by her intercession. Hence, turning to Mary, he exclaimed: “Thou hast insuperable strength, lest the multitude of our sins should overcome thy clemency.” O mother of God, the sins of a Christian, however great they may be, cannot overcome thy mercy. “Nothing,” adds the same saint, “resists thy power; for the Creator regards thy glory as his own.” Nothing is impossible to thee, says St. Peter Damian: thou canst raise even those who are in despair to hopes of salvation. ”Nihil tibi impossibile, quæ etiam desperates in spem salutis potes relevare.” (Ser. i. de Nat. B.V.)
5. Richard of St. Lawrence remarks that, in announcing to the Virgin that God has chosen her for the mother of his Son, the Archangel Gabriel said to her: “Fear not, Mary; for thou hast found grace with God.” (Luke i. 30.) From which words the same author concludes: “Cupientes invenire gratiam, quæramus inventricem gratiæ.” If we wish to recover lost grace, let us seek Mary, by whom this grace has been found. She never lost the divine grace; she always possessed it. If the angel declared that she had found grace, he meant that she had found it not for herself, but for us miserable sinners, who have lost it. Hence Cardinal Hugo exhorts us to go to Mary, and say to her: O blessed lady, property should be restored to those who lost it: the grace which thou hast found is not thine for thou hast never lost the grace of God but it is ours; we have lost it through our own fault: to us, then, thou oughtest to restore it. “Sinners, who by your sins have forfeited the divine grace, run to the Virgin, and say to her with confidence: Restore us to our property, which thou hast found.”
6. It was revealed to St. Gertrude, that all the graces which we ask of God through the intercession of Mary, shall be given to us. She heard Jesus saying to his divine mother: “Through thee all who ask mercy with a purpose of amending their lives, shall obtain grace.” If all Paradise asked a favour of God, and Mary asked the opposite grace, the Lord would hear Mary, and would reject the petition of the rest of the celestial host. Because, says Father Suarez, “God loved the Virgin alone more than all the other saints.” Let us, then, conclude this first point in the words of St. Bernard: ”Let us seek grace, and let us seek it through Mary; for she is a mother, and her petition cannot be rejected.” (Serm. de Aquæd.) Let us seek through Mary all the graces we desire to receive from God, and we shall obtain them; for she is a mother, and her son cannot refuse to hear her prayers, or to grant the graces which she asks from him.
Second Point. On the tender compassion of Mary, and her readiness to assist us in all our wants.
7. The tenderness of Mary’s mercy may be inferred from the fact related in this day’s Gospel. The wine fails the spouses are troubled no one speaks to Mary to ask her Son to console them in their necessity. But the tenderness of Mary’s heart, which, according to St. Bernardine of Sienna, cannot but pity the afflicted, moved her to take the office of advocate, and, without being asked, to entreat her Son to work a miracle. ”Unasked, she assumed the office of an advocate and a compassionate helper.” (Tom. 3, ser. ix.) Hence, adds the same saint, if, unasked, this good lady has done so much, what will she not do for those who invoke her intercession? “Si hoc non rogata perfecit, quid rogata perficiet ?”
8. From the fact already related, St. Bonaventure draws another argument to show the great graces which we may hope to obtain through Mary, now that she reigns in Heaven. If she was so compassionate on earth, how much greater must be her mercy now that she is in Paradise? “Great was the mercy of Mary while in exile on earth; but it is much greater now that she is a queen in Heaven; because she now sees the misery of men.” (St. Bona. in Spec. Virg., cap. viii.) Mary in Heaven enjoys the vision of God; and therefore she sees our wants far more clearly than when she was on earth; hence, as her pity for us is increased, so also is her desire to assist us more ardent. How truly has Richard of St. Victor said to the Virgin: “So tender is thy heart that thou canst not see misery and not afford succour.” It is impossible for this loving mother to behold a human being in distress without extending to him pity and relief.
9. St. Peter Damian says that the Virgin “loves us with an invincible love.” (Ser, i. de Nat. Virg.) How ardently soever the saints may have loved this amiable queen, their affection fell far short of the love which Mary bore to them. It is this love that makes her so solicitous for our welfare. The saints in Heaven, says St. Augustine, have great power to obtain grace from God for those who recommend themselves to their prayers; but as Mary is of all the saints the most powerful, so she is of all the most desirous to procure for us the divine mercy: ”Sicut omnibus sanctis potentior, sic omnibus est pro nobis sollicitior.”
10. And, as this our great advocate once said to St. Bridget, she regards not the iniquities of the sinner who has recourse to her, but the disposition with which he invokes her aid. If he comes to her with a firm purpose of amendment she receives him, and by her intercession heals his wounds, and brings him to salvation. ”However great a man’s sins may be, if he shall return to me, I am ready instantly to receive him. Nor do I regard the number or the enormity of his sins, but the will with which he comes to me; for I do not disdain to anoint and heal his wounds, because I am called, and truly am, the mother of mercy.”
11. The blessed Virgin is called a “fair olive tree in the plains:” “Quasi oliva speciosa in campis.” (Eccl. xxiv. 19.) From the olive, oil only comes forth; and from the hands of Mary only graces and mercies flow. According to Cardinal Hugo, it is said that she remains in the plains, to show that she is ready to assist all those who have recourse to her: “Speciosa in campis ut omnes ad earn confugiant.” In the Old Law there were five cities of refuge, in which not all, but only those who had committed certain crimes, could find an asylum; but in Mary, says St. John Damascene, all criminals, whatever may be their offences, may take refuge. Hence he calls her “the city of refuge for all who have recourse to her.” Why, then, says St. Bernard, should we be afraid to approach Mary? She is all sweetness and clemency; in her there is nothing austere or terrible: “Quid ad Mariam accedere trepidat humana fragilitas? Nihil austerum in ea, nihil terribile, tota sauvis est.”
12. St. Bonaventure used to say that, in turning to Mary, he saw mercy itself receiving him. “When I behold thee, O my lady, I see nothing but mercy.” The Virgin said one day to St. Bridget: “Miser erit, qui ad misericordiam cum possit, non accedit.” Miserable and miserable for eternity shall be the sinner who, though he has it in his power during life to come to me, who am able and willing to assist him, neglects to invoke my aid, and is lost, ”The devil” says St. Peter, ”as a roaring lion goeth about seeing whom he may devour.” (1 Pet. v. 8.) But, according to Bernardine a Bustis, this mother of mercy is constantly going about in search of sinners to save them. “She continually goes about seeking whom she may save.” (Maril. par. 3, ser. iii.) This queen of clemency, says Richard of St. Victor, presents our petitions, and begins to assist us before we ask the assistance of her prayers; “Velocius occurrit ejus pietas quam invocetur, et causas miserorum anticipat.” (In Can., c. xxiii.) Because, as the same author says, Mary’s heart is so full of tenderness towards us, that she cannot behold our miseries without affording relief. ”Nee possis miserias scire, et non sub venire.”
13. Let us, then, in all our wants, be most careful to have recourse to this mother of mercy, who is always ready to assist those who invoke her aid. ”Invenies semper paratam auxiliari,” says Richard of St. Lawrence. She is always prepared to come to our help, and frequently prevents our supplications: but, ordinarily, she requires that we should pray to her, and is offended when we neglect to ask her assistance. ”In te domina peccant,” says St. Bonaventure, “non solum qui tibi injuriam irrogant, sed etiam qui te non rogant.” (In Spec. Virg.) Thou, blessed lady, art displeased not only with those who commit an injury against thee, but also with those who do not ask favours from thee. Hence, as the same holy doctor teaches, it is not possible that Mary should neglect to succour any soul that flies to her for protection; for she cannot but pity and console the afflicted who have recourse to her. ”Ipsa enim non misereri ignorat et miseris non satisfacere.”
14. But, to obtain special favours from this good lady, we must perform in her honour certain devotions practised by her servants; such as, first, to recite every day at least five decades of the Rosary; secondly, to fast every Saturday in her honour. Many persons fast every Saturday on bread and water: you should fast in this manner at least on the vigils of her seven principal festivals. Thirdly, to say the three Aves when the bell rings for the Angelus Domini; and to salute her frequently during the day with an Ave Maria, particularly when you hear a clock strike, or when you see an image of the Virgin, and also when you leave or return to your house. Fourthly, to say every evening the Litany of the Blessed Virgin before you go to rest; and for this purpose procure an image of Mary, and keep it near your bed. Fifthly, to wear the scapular of Mary in sorrow, and of Mount Carmel. There are many other devotions practised by the servants of Mary; but the most useful of all is, to recommend yourself frequently to her prayers. Never omit to say three Aves in the morning, to beg of her to preserve you from sin during the day. In all temptations have immediate recourse to her, saying: “Mary, assist me.” To resist every temptation, it is sufficient to pronounce the names of Jesus and Mary; and if the temptation continues, let us continue to invoke Jesus and Mary, and the devil shall never be able to conquer us.
15. St. Bonaventure calls Mary the salvation of those who invoke her: “salus te invocantium.” And if a true servant of Mary were lost (I mean one truly devoted to her, who wishes to amend his life, and invoke with confidence this advocate of sinners), this should happen either because Mary would be unable or unwilling to assist him. But, says St. Bernard, this is impossible: being the mother of omnipotence and of mercy, Mary cannot want the power or the will to save her servants. Justly then is she called the salvation of all who invoke her aid. Of this truth there are numberless examples: that of St. Mary of Egypt will be sufficient. After leading for many years a sinful and dissolute life, she wished to enter the church of Jerusalem in which the festival of the holy cross was celebrated. To make her feel her miseries, God closed against her the door which was open to all others: as often as she endeavoured to enter, an invisible force drove her back. She instantly perceived her miserable condition, and remained in sorrow outside the church. Fortunately for her there was an image of most holy Mary over the porch of the church. As a poor sinner she recommended herself to the divine mother, and promised to change her life. After her prayer, she felt encouraged to go into the church, and, behold! the door which was before closed against her she now finds open: she enters, and confesses her sins. She leaves the church, and, under the influence of divine inspiration, goes into the desert, where she lived for forty-seven years, and became a saint.
Today, 29th June, is the Solemnity of SS. Peter and Paul. We celebrate not only their feast, but also the birthday of the Holy Roman Church, which together they founded by their word, the works, and by their blood.
St. Peter, who is also known as Simon, was the son of John of Bethsaida. Together with his brother, St. Andrew the Apostle, St. Peter was a fisherman (probably illiterate) who spent his days in his boat with his father and brother on the Sea of Galilee. When Our Lord called him and his brother, they left their nets and boats, and were joined to the Apostolic College. At Caesarea Philippi, Our Lord promised to build the Church on St. Peter and to give him supreme authority over the whole Church. During his life, St. Peter was often rash and quick to act and speak, which often led him to trouble. At the Passion of Our Lord, as Christ had prophesied, the Apostle thrice denied the Saviour, for which he bitterly repented and wept over. According to tradition, his cheeks forever bore the signs of his prolonged weeping. Later on, after His Resurrection, Christ conferred His Authority upon St. Peter, and made him His Vicar on earth and the Prince of the Apostles. St. Peter first fixed his See at Antioch, before transferring it and fixing it at Rome, becoming her first Bishop. He spent 25 years in Rome, founding the Roman Church and preaching the Gospel. Two of his Epistles were joined to the Canon of Scripture. He was sentenced to death by crucifixion by the Emperor Nero. He was led to the Circus Nero, located outside the ancient city walls on Vatican Hill, and at his request he was crucified upside down, since he felt unworthy to die in the same manner as his Master. His blood consecrated the City of Rome to the Lord, and made her the spiritual capital of the world. His body was later buried on Vatican Hill, over which, in the 4th Century, Constantine the Great would later build a great Basilica in Peter's honour. This ancient structure stood until the 16th Century when, due to its great age, it was pulled down and replaced by the current St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. St. Peter's relics rest under the Basilica, so that the words of Our Lord would be literally fulfilled, namely, that upon Peter the Church would be built. His physical appearance is described as having: a strong, roundish head, prominent jaw-bones, a receding forehead, thick, curly hair and beard.
St. Paul began life as Saul of Tarsus, a city in Asia Minor (Turkey). He was schooled in the Pharasaical tradition, and became somewhat a fanatic. This led him to heavily, and violently, persecuted the Early Church. He was present at the stoning of the Church's first martyr, St. Stephen. He made a name for himself hunting Christians. Whilst travelling on the road to Damascus, again to persecute Christians, the Lord appeared to him to end Saul's persecution. This encounter with Christ led Saul to convert to the Catholic Faith. He fled into the Arabian desert for many years, after which he returned to Jerusalem to see St. Peter. He recounted his story to Peter, who no doubt baptised Saul, and then conferred priestly and episcopal authority on Saul, and grafted into the Apostolic College. Saul later changed his name to Paul, since his principal missions were to the Greek speaking Gentiles of the East. He established many Sees in the East, many of which still exist today. Fourteen of his Epistles were added to the Canon of Scripture by the Church. He was many times persecuted by both pagan and Jewish authorities. Although he was a prolific preacher of the Faith, he is believed to not have been a good public orator for whatever reason. he later removed himself to Rome, to join St. Peter in building up the Roman Church. Whilst there, Paul was imprisoned several times. Eventually, like St. Peter, Paul was condemned to death by Nero. Since he was a Roman citizen, he would be beheaded. According to tradition, Peter and Paul embraced each other and blessed one another when the day of their executions came round. Though they had often disagreed with one another, yet they embraced one another a most beloved brothers in Christ. Whilst Peter was sent off to Vatican Hill to be crucified, Paul to taken to another place and beheaded. His body was moved two miles from the execution site and buried. Later, Constantine the Great erected a Church over the site, and this was enlarged by Emperor Theodosius I. It stands today and is known as St. Paul Outside the Walls. St. Paul is described by the Catholic Encyclopaedia as: short of stature; the Pseudo-Chrysostom calls him "the man of three cubits" (anthropos tripechys) [or four foot six inches, a small man indeed!]; he was broad-shouldered, somewhat bald, with slightly aquiline nose, closely-knit eyebrows, thick, greyish beard, fair complexion, and a pleasing and affable manner. He was afflicted with a malady which is difficult to diagnose (cf. Menzies, "St. Paul's Infirmity" in the Expository Times", July and Sept., 1904), but despite this painful and humiliating infirmity (II Cor., xii, 7-9; Gal., iv, 13-14) and although his bearing was not impressive (II Cor., x, 10), Paul must undoubtedly have been possessed of great physical strength to have sustained so long such superhuman labours (II Cor., xi, 23-29). Pseudo-Chrysostom, "In princip. apostol. Petrum et Paulum" (in P. G., LIX, 494-95), considers that he died at the age of sixty-eight after having served the Lord for thirty-five years.
May SS. Peter and Paul, glorious Princes of the Apostles, intercede for Holy Mother Church at this time when She is so assailed by the powers of Hell. May they secure for Her liberty and salvation, and may their voices once more ring out from Rome to enlighten the hearts and minds of ignorant men.
Ss. Peter and Paul, pray for us!